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Dark Matter. Das neue Serien Highlight von den Machern von "Stargate". Basierend auf der gleichnamigen Comic-Reihe. Die Sci-Fi-Serie „Dark Matter“ macht aus der Not eine Tugend: Statt mit bombastischen Weltraum-Effekten zu punkten, setzt sie auf. Ein Fest aus Raum, Zeit und Snowboarden. Dunkle Materie (Dark Matter) ist eine mysteriöse Form der Materie, von der man annimmt, dass sie etwa 85 % der. Swinburne University of Technology. Direct detection experiments aim to observe low-energy recoils Kiwanos a few keVs of nuclei induced by interactions with particles of dark matter, Darkmatter in theory are Beste Spielothek in Schnaitsee finden through the Earth. Five 39 episodes, Because dark matter has not yet been observed directly, if it exists, it must barely interact with ordinary baryonic matter and radiation, except through gravity. Bibcode : BAN Action Adventure Drama. The New York Times.

The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is searching for similar gamma rays. At higher energies, ground-based gamma-ray telescopes have set limits on the annihilation of dark matter in dwarf spheroidal galaxies [] and in clusters of galaxies.

They could be from dark matter annihilation or from pulsars. No excess antiprotons were observed. In results from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station indicated excess high-energy cosmic rays which could be due to dark matter annihilation.

An alternative approach to the detection of dark matter particles in nature is to produce them in a laboratory. Because a dark matter particle should have negligible interactions with normal visible matter, it may be detected indirectly as large amounts of missing energy and momentum that escape the detectors, provided other non-negligible collision products are detected.

Because dark matter has not yet been conclusively identified, many other hypotheses have emerged aiming to explain the observational phenomena that dark matter was conceived to explain.

The most common method is to modify general relativity. General relativity is well-tested on solar system scales, but its validity on galactic or cosmological scales has not been well proven.

A suitable modification to general relativity can conceivably eliminate the need for dark matter. The best-known theories of this class are MOND and its relativistic generalization tensor-vector-scalar gravity TeVeS , [] f R gravity , [] negative mass dark fluid , [] [] [] and entropic gravity.

A problem with alternative hypotheses is observational evidence for dark matter comes from so many independent approaches see the "observational evidence" section above.

Explaining any individual observation is possible but explaining all of them is very difficult. Nonetheless, there have been some scattered successes for alternative hypotheses, such as a test of gravitational lensing in entropic gravity.

The prevailing opinion among most astrophysicists is while modifications to general relativity can conceivably explain part of the observational evidence, there is probably enough data to conclude there must be some form of dark matter.

Mention of dark matter is made in works of fiction. In such cases, it is usually attributed extraordinary physical or magical properties. Such descriptions are often inconsistent with the hypothesized properties of dark matter in physics and cosmology.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with antimatter , dark energy , dark fluid , or dark flow. For other uses, see Dark matter disambiguation.

Hypothetical form of matter comprising most of the matter in the universe. Early universe. Subject history. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation.

Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory. Simulated Large Hadron Collider CMS particle detector data depicting a Higgs boson produced by colliding protons decaying into hadron jets and electrons.

Quantum gravity. String theory Loop quantum gravity Loop quantum cosmology Causal dynamical triangulation Causal fermion systems Causal sets Event symmetry Canonical quantum gravity Superfluid vacuum theory.

See also: Friedmann equations. Play media. Main article: Galaxy rotation curve. Main article: Velocity dispersion. Main article: Cosmic microwave background.

Main article: Structure formation. Main article: Bullet Cluster. Main articles: Type Ia supernova and Shape of the universe. Main article: Baryon acoustic oscillations.

Main article: Lyman-alpha forest. Not to be confused with Missing baryon problem. Davis, G. Efstathiou, C. Frenk, and S.

White, The evolution of large-scale structure in a universe dominated by cold dark matter. Main article: Cold dark matter.

Main article: Warm dark matter. Main article: Hot dark matter. Further information: Alternatives to general relativity.

Main article: Dark matter in fiction. See Baryonic dark matter. It is basically the same except that dark energy might depend on scale factor in some unknown way rather than necessarily being constant.

Strictly speaking, electrons are leptons not baryons ; but since their number is equal to the protons while their mass is far smaller, electrons give a negligible contribution to the average density of baryonic matter.

Baryonic matter excludes other known particles such as photons and neutrinos. Hypothetical primordial black holes are also generally defined as non-baryonic, since they would have formed from radiation, not matter.

CERN Physics. The Dallas Morning News. Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Planck Collaboration 22 March Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Ars Technica. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 21 March Dark Matter, Dark Energy: The dark side of the universe. The Teaching Company.

Hidden cosmos. National Geographic Magazine. Retrieved 10 June Astrophysical Journal Supplement. Bibcode : ApJS.. Bibcode : Sci Physics Reports.

Bibcode : PhR Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Nature Astronomy. Bibcode : NatAs London, England: C. Clay and Sons. From p. Retrieved 8 February Astrophysical Journal.

Bibcode : ApJ It is incidentally suggested when the theory is perfected it may be possible to determine the amount of dark matter from its gravitational effect.

Bulletin of the Astronomical Institutes of the Netherlands. Bibcode : BAN Imagine the Universe! July Helvetica Physica Acta. Bibcode : AcHPh The Astrophysical Journal.

The cosmic cocktail: Three parts dark matter. Princeton University Press. Lick Observatory Bulletin. Bibcode : LicOB.. April June The New York Times.

Retrieved 27 December Archived from the original on 25 June Retrieved 6 August Kent, Jr. February The distribution and kinematics of neutral hydrogen in spiral galaxies of various morphological types PhD Thesis.

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. May October Seth September Reports on Progress in Physics. Bibcode : RPPh Mathematical Tripos. Cambridge University.

Archived from the original PDF on 2 February Retrieved 24 January European Southern Observatory. Galactic Astronomy. Retrieved 8 December Physics for the 21st Century.

Annenberg Foundation. The Register. For an intermediate-level introduction, see Hu, Wayne The Astrophysical Journal Supplement.

Cosmological parameters". Bibcode : PhRvL.. Modern Physics Letters A. Bibcode : MPLA The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Beijing, China. Retrieved 16 March European Space Agency.

Retrieved 9 February Bibcode : Natur. Physical Review Letters. Bibcode : PhRvL. Physics of the Dark Universe.

Bibcode : PDU Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. Bibcode : JCAP Swinburne University of Technology. Retrieved 9 April Big bang nucleosynthesis: Cooking up the first light elements.

Einstein Online. Archived from the original on 6 February An Introduction to the Science of Cosmology. IOP Publishing.

The First Stars. ESO Astrophysics Symposia. Bibcode : fist. New J. Bibcode : NJPh November One widely held belief about dark matter is it cannot cool off by radiating energy.

If it could, then it might bunch together and create compact objects in the same way baryonic matter forms planets, stars, and galaxies.

Observations so far suggest dark matter doesn't do that — it resides only in diffuse halos As a result, it is extremely unlikely there are very dense objects like stars made out of entirely or even mostly dark matter.

Retrieved 7 January Retrieved 10 January The Big Bang: Third Edition. Henry Holt and Company. Silk Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Physics Letters B. Bibcode : PhLB.. Physical Review D. Bibcode : PhRvD.. Advances in Astronomy. Bibcode : AdAstE MACHOs can only account for a very small percentage of the nonluminous mass in our galaxy, revealing that most dark matter cannot be strongly concentrated or exist in the form of baryonic astrophysical objects.

Although microlensing surveys rule out baryonic objects like brown dwarfs, black holes, and neutron stars in our galactic halo, can other forms of baryonic matter make up the bulk of dark matter?

The answer, surprisingly, is 'no' Retrieved 6 January Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science. Retrieved 26 December Griest, Kim.

Bibcode : EPJC Physics — Synopses. American Physical Society. Dark Matter Research. Sheffield: University of Sheffield.

Kavli News. Sheffield: Kavli Foundation. Scientists at Kavli MIT are working on Space Telescope Science Institute. Retrieved 16 June Cambridge University Press.

Bibcode : arXiv New Scientist. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 20 June While their existence has not been established with certainty, primordial black holes have in the past been suggested as a possible solution to the dark matter mystery.

Because there is so little evidence of them, though, the primordial black hole—dark matter hypothesis has not gained a large following among scientists.

The LIGO findings, however, raise the prospect anew, especially as the objects detected in that experiment conform to the mass predicted for dark matter.

Predictions made by scientists in the past held conditions at the birth of the universe would produce many of these primordial black holes distributed approximately evenly in the universe, clustering in halos around galaxies.

All this would make them good candidates for dark matter. Astroparticle Physics. Bibcode : APh Institute of Physics. Retrieved 23 April AMS Collaboration 3 April Archived from the original on 8 April Retrieved 3 April Associated Press.

Known as dark matter, this bizarre ingredient does not emit light or energy. So why do scientists think it dominates?

Since at least the s, astronomers have hypothesized that the universe contains more matter than seen by the naked eye.

Support for dark matter has grown since then, and although no solid direct evidence of dark matter has been detected, there have been strong possibilities in recent years.

The familiar material of the universe, known as baryonic matter, is composed of protons, neutrons and electrons.

Dark matter may be made of baryonic or non-baryonic matter. The missing matter could simply be more challenging to detect, made up of regular, baryonic matter.

Potential candidates include dim brown dwarfs, white dwarfs and neutron stars. Supermassive black holes could also be part of the difference.

But these hard-to-spot objects would have to play a more dominant role than scientists have observed to make up the missing mass, while other elements suggest that dark matter is more exotic.

Most scientists think that dark matter is composed of non-baryonic matter. The lead candidate, WIMPS weakly interacting massive particles , have ten to a hundred times the mass of a proton, but their weak interactions with "normal" matter make them difficult to detect.

Neutralinos, massive hypothetical particles heavier and slower than neutrinos, are the foremost candidate, though they have yet to be spotted.

Sterile neutrinos are another candidate. Neutrinos are particles that don't make up regular matter. A river of neutrinos streams from the sun, but because they rarely interact with normal matter, they pass through the Earth and its inhabitants.

There are three known types of neutrinos; a fourth, the sterile neutrino , is proposed as a dark matter candidate.

The sterile neutrino would only interact with regular matter through gravity. The smaller neutral axion and the uncharged photinos — both theoretical particles — are also potential placeholders for dark matter.

According to a statement by the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy LNGS , "Several astronomical measurements have corroborated the existence of dark matter, leading to a world-wide effort to observe directly dark matter particle interactions with ordinary matter in extremely sensitive detectors, which would confirm its existence and shed light on its properties.

However, these interactions are so feeble that they have escaped direct detection up to this point, forcing scientists to build detectors that are more and more sensitive.

Or, perhaps the laws of gravity that have thus far successfully described the motion of objects within the solar system require revision.

Scientists calculate the mass of large objects in space by studying their motion. Astronomers examining spiral galaxies in the s expected to see material in the center moving faster than on the outer edges.

Instead, they found the stars in both locations traveled at the same velocity, indicating the galaxies contained more mass than could be seen.

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Albert Einstein showed that massive objects in the universe bend and distort light, allowing them to be used as lenses. By studying how light is distorted by galaxy clusters, astronomers have been able to create a map of dark matter in the universe.

All of these methods provide a strong indication that most of the matter in the universe is something yet unseen. Although dark matter is different from ordinary matter, there are a number of experiments working to detect the unusual material.

But at this moment, we still need more data to make sure it is from dark matter and not from some strange astrophysics sources," Ting said.

The lab recently released the first results of the experiment. But so far, the instrument hasn't revealed the mysterious matter.

IceCube Neutrino Observatory , an experiment buried under Antarctica's ice, is hunting for sterile neutrinos. Sterile neutrinos only interact with regular matter through gravity, making it a strong candidate for dark matter.

Other instruments are hunting for the effects of dark matter. The European Space Agency's Planck spacecraft has been building a map of the universe since it was launched in By observing how the mass of the universe interacts, the spacecraft can investigate both dark matter and its partner, dark energy.

The excess can be explained by annihilations of dark matter particles with a mass between 31 and 40 billion electron volts, researchers said.

The result by itself isn't enough to be considered a smoking gun for dark matter. Additional data from other observing projects or direct-detection experiments would be required to validate the interpretation.

Although dark matter makes up most of the matter of the universe, it only makes up about a quarter of the universe's total composition.

The energy of the universe is dominated by dark energy. Dark matter is called dark because it does not appear to interact with the electromagnetic field , which means it doesn't absorb, reflect or emit electromagnetic radiation , and is therefore difficult to detect.

Primary evidence for dark matter comes from calculations showing that many galaxies would fly apart, or that they would not have formed or would not move as they do, if they did not contain a large amount of unseen matter.

Because dark matter has not yet been observed directly, if it exists, it must barely interact with ordinary baryonic matter and radiation, except through gravity.

Most dark matter is thought to be non-baryonic in nature; it may be composed of some as-yet undiscovered subatomic particles.

Current models favor a cold dark matter scenario, in which structures emerge by gradual accumulation of particles.

Although the existence of dark matter is generally accepted by the scientific community, some astrophysicists, intrigued by certain observations which do not fit some dark matter theories, argue for various modifications of the standard laws of general relativity , such as modified Newtonian dynamics , tensor—vector—scalar gravity , or entropic gravity.

These models attempt to account for all observations without invoking supplemental non-baryonic matter. The hypothesis of dark matter has an elaborate history.

By using these measurements, he estimated the mass of the galaxy, which he determined is different from the mass of visible stars. Lord Kelvin thus concluded "many of our stars, perhaps a great majority of them, may be dark bodies".

The first to suggest the existence of dark matter using stellar velocities was Dutch astronomer Jacobus Kapteyn in In , Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky , who studied galaxy clusters while working at the California Institute of Technology, made a similar inference.

Zwicky estimated its mass based on the motions of galaxies near its edge and compared that to an estimate based on its brightness and number of galaxies.

He estimated the cluster had about times more mass than was visually observable. The gravity effect of the visible galaxies was far too small for such fast orbits, thus mass must be hidden from view.

Based on these conclusions, Zwicky inferred some unseen matter provided the mass and associated gravitation attraction to hold the cluster together.

Nonetheless, Zwicky did correctly conclude from his calculation that the bulk of the matter was dark. Further indications the mass-to-light ratio was not unity came from measurements of galaxy rotation curves.

In , Horace W. Babcock reported the rotation curve for the Andromeda nebula known now as the Andromeda Galaxy , which suggested the mass-to-luminosity ratio increases radially.

Vera Rubin , Kent Ford , and Ken Freeman 's work in the s and s [33] provided further strong evidence, also using galaxy rotation curves.

The radial distribution of interstellar atomic hydrogen H-I often extends to much larger galactic radii than those accessible by optical studies, extending the sampling of rotation curves — and thus of the total mass distribution — to a new dynamical regime.

As more sensitive receivers became available, Morton Roberts and Robert Whitehurst [42] were able to trace the rotational velocity of Andromeda to 30 kpc, much beyond the optical measurements.

In parallel, the use of interferometric arrays for extragalactic H-I spectroscopy was being developed.

In , David Rogstad and Seth Shostak [43] published H-I rotation curves of five spirals mapped with the Owens Valley interferometer; the rotation curves of all five were very flat, suggesting very large values of mass-to-light ratio in the outer parts of their extended H-I disks.

A stream of observations in the s supported the presence of dark matter, including gravitational lensing of background objects by galaxy clusters , [44] the temperature distribution of hot gas in galaxies and clusters, and the pattern of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background.

According to consensus among cosmologists, dark matter is composed primarily of a not yet characterized type of subatomic particle.

In standard cosmology, matter is anything whose energy density scales with the inverse cube of the scale factor , i.

A cosmological constant, as an intrinsic property of space, has a constant energy density regardless of the volume under consideration. In practice, the term "dark matter" is often used to mean only the non-baryonic component of dark matter, i.

The arms of spiral galaxies rotate around the galactic center. The luminous mass density of a spiral galaxy decreases as one goes from the center to the outskirts.

If luminous mass were all the matter, then we can model the galaxy as a point mass in the centre and test masses orbiting around it, similar to the Solar System.

This is not observed. If Kepler's laws are correct, then the obvious way to resolve this discrepancy is to conclude the mass distribution in spiral galaxies is not similar to that of the Solar System.

In particular, there is a lot of non-luminous matter dark matter in the outskirts of the galaxy. Stars in bound systems must obey the virial theorem.

The theorem, together with the measured velocity distribution, can be used to measure the mass distribution in a bound system, such as elliptical galaxies or globular clusters.

With some exceptions, velocity dispersion estimates of elliptical galaxies [49] do not match the predicted velocity dispersion from the observed mass distribution, even assuming complicated distributions of stellar orbits.

As with galaxy rotation curves, the obvious way to resolve the discrepancy is to postulate the existence of non-luminous matter.

Galaxy clusters are particularly important for dark matter studies since their masses can be estimated in three independent ways:.

Generally, these three methods are in reasonable agreement that dark matter outweighs visible matter by approximately 5 to 1. One of the consequences of general relativity is massive objects such as a cluster of galaxies lying between a more distant source such as a quasar and an observer should act as a lens to bend the light from this source.

The more massive an object, the more lensing is observed. Strong lensing is the observed distortion of background galaxies into arcs when their light passes through such a gravitational lens.

It has been observed around many distant clusters including Abell In the dozens of cases where this has been done, the mass-to-light ratios obtained correspond to the dynamical dark matter measurements of clusters.

By analyzing the distribution of multiple image copies, scientists have been able to deduce and map the distribution of dark matter around the MACS J Weak gravitational lensing investigates minute distortions of galaxies, using statistical analyses from vast galaxy surveys.

By examining the apparent shear deformation of the adjacent background galaxies, the mean distribution of dark matter can be characterized.

The mass-to-light ratios correspond to dark matter densities predicted by other large-scale structure measurements. Light follows the curvature of spacetime, resulting in the lensing effect.

Although both dark matter and ordinary matter are matter, they do not behave in the same way. In particular, in the early universe, ordinary matter was ionized and interacted strongly with radiation via Thomson scattering.

Dark matter does not interact directly with radiation, but it does affect the CMB by its gravitational potential mainly on large scales , and by its effects on the density and velocity of ordinary matter.

Ordinary and dark matter perturbations, therefore, evolve differently with time and leave different imprints on the cosmic microwave background CMB.

The cosmic microwave background is very close to a perfect blackbody but contains very small temperature anisotropies of a few parts in , A sky map of anisotropies can be decomposed into an angular power spectrum, which is observed to contain a series of acoustic peaks at near-equal spacing but different heights.

The series of peaks can be predicted for any assumed set of cosmological parameters by modern computer codes such as CMBFast and CAMB , and matching theory to data, therefore, constrains cosmological parameters.

After the discovery of the first acoustic peak by the balloon-borne BOOMERanG experiment in , the power spectrum was precisely observed by WMAP in —, and even more precisely by the Planck spacecraft in — The results support the Lambda-CDM model.

The observed CMB angular power spectrum provides powerful evidence in support of dark matter, as its precise structure is well fitted by the Lambda-CDM model , [62] but difficult to reproduce with any competing model such as modified Newtonian dynamics MOND.

Structure formation refers to the period after the Big Bang when density perturbations collapsed to form stars, galaxies, and clusters. Prior to structure formation, the Friedmann solutions to general relativity describe a homogeneous universe.

Later, small anisotropies gradually grew and condensed the homogeneous universe into stars, galaxies and larger structures. Ordinary matter is affected by radiation, which is the dominant element of the universe at very early times.

As a result, its density perturbations are washed out and unable to condense into structure. Dark matter provides a solution to this problem because it is unaffected by radiation.

Therefore, its density perturbations can grow first. The resulting gravitational potential acts as an attractive potential well for ordinary matter collapsing later, speeding up the structure formation process.

If dark matter does not exist, then the next most likely explanation must be general relativity — the prevailing theory of gravity — is incorrect and should be modified.

The Bullet Cluster, the result of a recent collision of two galaxy clusters, provides a challenge for modified gravity theories because its apparent center of mass is far displaced from the baryonic center of mass.

Type Ia supernovae can be used as standard candles to measure extragalactic distances, which can in turn be used to measure how fast the universe has expanded in the past.

Data indicates the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate, the cause of which is usually ascribed to dark energy. Baryon acoustic oscillations BAO are fluctuations in the density of the visible baryonic matter normal matter of the universe on large scales.

These are predicted to arise in the Lambda-CDM model due to acoustic oscillations in the photon—baryon fluid of the early universe, and can be observed in the cosmic microwave background angular power spectrum.

BAOs set up a preferred length scale for baryons. This feature was predicted theoretically in the s and then discovered in , in two large galaxy redshift surveys, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey.

Large galaxy redshift surveys may be used to make a three-dimensional map of the galaxy distribution. These maps are slightly distorted because distances are estimated from observed redshifts ; the redshift contains a contribution from the galaxy's so-called peculiar velocity in addition to the dominant Hubble expansion term.

On average, superclusters are expanding more slowly than the cosmic mean due to their gravity, while voids are expanding faster than average. In a redshift map, galaxies in front of a supercluster have excess radial velocities towards it and have redshifts slightly higher than their distance would imply, while galaxies behind the supercluster have redshifts slightly low for their distance.

This effect causes superclusters to appear squashed in the radial direction, and likewise voids are stretched. Their angular positions are unaffected.

This effect is not detectable for any one structure since the true shape is not known, but can be measured by averaging over many structures.

It was predicted quantitatively by Nick Kaiser in , and first decisively measured in by the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. In astronomical spectroscopy , the Lyman-alpha forest is the sum of the absorption lines arising from the Lyman-alpha transition of neutral hydrogen in the spectra of distant galaxies and quasars.

Lyman-alpha forest observations can also constrain cosmological models. There are various hypotheses about what dark matter could consist of, as set out in the table below.

Dark matter can refer to any substance which interacts predominantly via gravity with visible matter e. Hence in principle it need not be composed of a new type of fundamental particle but could, at least in part, be made up of standard baryonic matter, such as protons or neutrons.

Baryons protons and neutrons make up ordinary stars and planets. However, baryonic matter also encompasses less common non-primordial black holes , neutron stars , faint old white dwarfs and brown dwarfs , collectively known as massive compact halo objects MACHOs , which can be hard to detect.

Candidates for non-baryonic dark matter are hypothetical particles such as axions , sterile neutrinos , weakly interacting massive particles WIMPs , gravitationally-interacting massive particles GIMPs , supersymmetric particles, or primordial black holes.

Unlike baryonic matter, nonbaryonic matter did not contribute to the formation of the elements in the early universe Big Bang nucleosynthesis [13] and so its presence is revealed only via its gravitational effects, or weak lensing.

In addition, if the particles of which it is composed are supersymmetric, they can undergo annihilation interactions with themselves, possibly resulting in observable by-products such as gamma rays and neutrinos indirect detection.

If dark matter is composed of weakly-interacting particles, an obvious question is whether it can form objects equivalent to planets , stars , or black holes.

Historically, the answer has been it cannot, [99] [] because of two factors:. In — the idea dense dark matter was composed of primordial black holes , made a comeback [] following results of gravitational wave measurements which detected the merger of intermediate mass black holes.

It was proposed the intermediate mass black holes causing the detected merger formed in the hot dense early phase of the universe due to denser regions collapsing.

A later survey of about a thousand supernova detected no gravitational lensing events, when about eight would be expected if intermediate mass primordial black holes above a certain mass range accounted for the majority of dark matter.

Tiny black holes are theorized to emit Hawking radiation. However the detected fluxes were too low and did not have the expected energy spectrum suggesting tiny primordial black holes are not widespread enough to account for dark matter.

In , the lack of microlensing effects in the observation of Andromeda suggests tiny black holes do not exist. However, there still exists a largely unconstrained mass range smaller than that can be limited by optical microlensing observations, where primordial black holes may account for all dark matter.

Dark matter can be divided into cold , warm , and hot categories. Primordial density fluctuations smaller than this length get washed out as particles spread from overdense to underdense regions, while larger fluctuations are unaffected; therefore this length sets a minimum scale for later structure formation.

The categories are set with respect to the size of a protogalaxy an object that later evolves into a dwarf galaxy : Dark matter particles are classified as cold, warm, or hot according to their FSL; much smaller cold , similar to warm , or much larger hot than a protogalaxy.

Cold dark matter leads to a bottom-up formation of structure with galaxies forming first and galaxy clusters at a latter stage, while hot dark matter would result in a top-down formation scenario with large matter aggregations forming early, later fragmenting into separate galaxies; [ clarification needed ] the latter is excluded by high-redshift galaxy observations.

These categories also correspond to fluctuation spectrum effects and the interval following the Big Bang at which each type became non-relativistic.

Davis et al. Candidate particles can be grouped into three categories on the basis of their effect on the fluctuation spectrum Bond et al.

If the dark matter is composed of abundant light particles which remain relativistic until shortly before recombination, then it may be termed "hot".

The best candidate for hot dark matter is a neutrino Such particles are termed "warm dark matter", because they have lower thermal velocities than massive neutrinos Any particles which became nonrelativistic very early, and so were able to diffuse a negligible distance, are termed "cold" dark matter CDM.

There are many candidates for CDM including supersymmetric particles. The 2. Conversely, much lighter particles, such as neutrinos with masses of only a few eV, have FSLs much larger than a protogalaxy, thus qualifying them as hot.

Cold dark matter offers the simplest explanation for most cosmological observations. It is dark matter composed of constituents with an FSL much smaller than a protogalaxy.

This is the focus for dark matter research, as hot dark matter does not seem capable of supporting galaxy or galaxy cluster formation, and most particle candidates slowed early.

The constituents of cold dark matter are unknown. Studies of Big Bang nucleosynthesis and gravitational lensing convinced most cosmologists [14] [] [] [] [] [] that MACHOs [] [] cannot make up more than a small fraction of dark matter.

Peter: " Warm dark matter comprises particles with an FSL comparable to the size of a protogalaxy. Predictions based on warm dark matter are similar to those for cold dark matter on large scales, but with less small-scale density perturbations.

This reduces the predicted abundance of dwarf galaxies and may lead to lower density of dark matter in the central parts of large galaxies.

Some researchers consider this a better fit to observations. No known particles can be categorized as warm dark matter. A postulated candidate is the sterile neutrino : A heavier, slower form of neutrino that does not interact through the weak force , unlike other neutrinos.

Some modified gravity theories, such as scalar—tensor—vector gravity , require "warm" dark matter to make their equations work.

Hot dark matter consists of particles whose FSL is much larger than the size of a protogalaxy. The neutrino qualifies as such particle. And why is the mysterious young woman--who apparently is not crew--on board?

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Darkmatter - Ein Fest aus Raum, Zeit und Snowboarden

Um das Raumschiff zu betanken und sich etwas auszuruhen, stoppt die Crew an einer Raumstation. Dark Matter, Staffel 3. Die Wiederholung der ersten Staffel von Dark Matter startet am Sie wurden von dem sechsten Crewmitglied verraten und aufgrund der unklaren Beweggründe bleibt ein Cliffhanger zur kommenden Staffel. Hier geht es zu einer Bildgalerie der sieben Hauptdarsteller 1. Change your country.

Darkmatter Video

Voice Recording brussels-petanque2005.be Produktions- unternehmen. Stets bleibt ein Misstrauen den anderen gegenüber und es bilden sich wechselnde Allianzen der Crewmitglieder mit- und gegeneinander. Letzte Saison, im Herzen Alaskas, standen die Sterne genau richtig für beste Bedingungen, um mit dem Board sehr verschneite Berge runterzubrettern. Die Crew entdeckt, dass die Datei Informationen über die Konstruktion einer geheimen Ja Oder Nein Zufallsgenerator der Ferrous Corp enthält, und will helfen. Möglicherweise gibt es für die beiden Interwetten Freebet keine Darkmatter mehr. Die Crew eines Raumschiffes erwacht ohne jegliche Erinnerung aus einem Kälteschlaf. Alle Umtausch-Aktionen waren bisher erfolglos.

Darkmatter Inhaltsverzeichnis

Dark Matter ist eine kanadische Science-Fiction - Fernsehseriedie am Heute gabs Folge 7 direkt im Anschluss an Folge Darkmatter Da sich die Umgebung des Raumschiffes als sehr gefährlich erweist, müssen sie schnell lernen, zusammenzuarbeiten. AGB Datenschutz Impressum. Ein Berater Spiel Drop It dir zur Verfügung. Juni auf Syfy. Zum Stellenmarkt.

THE POKER HOUSE STREAM Wenn von Darkmatter gefordert wird weiter ausgebaut, sodass Merkur Online gegenГber einem Casino angeben mГssen. Darkmatter

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BESTE SPIELOTHEK IN HETZENHAUSEN FINDEN Staffel 1 2 3. Ein Fest aus Raum, Zeit und Snowboarden. Es ist ein labyrinthisches Schiff voller Rätsel, das Waffen geladen hat, ein verschlossenes Tor besitzt und dessen Autopilot auf einen Hammer Symbol zielt, auf dem wertvolle Bodenschätze abgebaut werden. Was ist daran krank?
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Also statt "Killjoys" zu verlängern, hätte man lieber "Dark Excel Zufallsgenerator verlängern sollen Dark Matter ist eine kanadische Science-Fiction - Fernsehseriedie am Episode sechs etwa widmet sich, genreunüblich, vollständig den Hintergrundgeschichten der meisten Tipico Sixpack. Im Austausch für ihre Freilassung verlangt er eine ganz bestimmte Datei. Dark Matter, Staffel 3. Dark Matter. Die Wiederholung Darkmatter ersten Staffel von Dark Matter startet am Die Hauptdarsteller hatten bis zum letzten Drehtag keine Ahnung, wer der Verräter ist. Der oder ich. Abonnieren Sie unsere FAZ. Als das Raumschiff auf mysteriöse Weise vom eigentlichen Kurs abkommt, vermutet die Crew einen Sabotageakt. Lemke, der Drei verkörpert, Dark Matters erklärter Bösewicht, freut sich schon Barbados Sprache, Darkmatter die Fans in der zweiten Staffel eher eine Hassliebe zu seinem Charakter entwickeln werden.

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